Apr 1, 2019 0 Comments

VRIC Monitor: April 2019

April 2019
The VRIC Monitor is a one-of-a-kind, monthly report from SFS tracking extra-regional influence in Latin America. VRIC stands for Venezuela, Russia, Iran,China where Venezuela represents the Bolivarian Revolution and the broader Bolivarian Alliance or ALBA. Likewise, Iran represents the Iranian Revolution and a growing presence of Middle Eastern actors in Latin America, namely its chief proxy, Hezbollah. The monitor is comprised of open source information selected by SFS analysts and fellows. This is not a complete list of media reports on VRIC presence in Latin America, but a snapshot of open-source media highlighting the major areas of VRIC influence.


As international pressure mounts against the Maduro regime in Venezuela, its extra-regional allies Russia, Iran, and China continue offering various forms of aid: Russia is providing military support, China is protecting critical infrastructure, and Iran is voicing support for the Maduro regime through state-run media. In March, Russia and China have supplied Venezuela with military technicians and more humanitarian aid. With additional U.S. sanctions on Venezuela’s state mining agency, Minerven, and its chief executive, the Maduro regime is increasingly relying on VRIC support to find alternative sources of revenue and financial channels to evade sanctions.

As Venezuela continues to dominate headlines worldwide, the VRIC nations are operating throughout the region. Russia and China prompt a nuclear energy race in Latin America, with China engaging in nuclear talks with Argentina and Russia collaborating on Bolivia’s nuclear program. Whereas, Brazil starts to edge out China to work closer with the U.S. on the heels of a historic visit to Washington, D.C. on March 17-19 by President Jair Bolsonaro.


Read the full report, here.

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